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Live Q+A with Dr Joel: The Misdiagnosed Impossible Child

Impossible Children
Children presenting with behavior disorders are often characterized as “an impossible child” by their teachers and parents. ADD (attention deficit disorder), ADHD (attention deficit disorder hyperactivity), LD (learning disabilities), ODD (oppositional defiant disorder), CD (conduct disorder), dyslexia (disorientation in deciphering symbols) and CAPD (central auditory processing disorder) are a few of the diagnoses utilized to describe these children. Typically, it’s the child’s pediatrician, psychiatrist and/or neurologist who routinely prescribe common treatments of Ritalin, Concerta, Adderall and/or Prozac to create order and quiet in children’s behavior.

Understandably, professionals are pressured to find answers for these children with learning and behavioral disorders. The school system and individual teachers are pressured as well to create an environment where these children labeled as lazy, wild, a dreamer, difficult, stupid, or uncooperative, can become socially functional within the mainstream classroom. Medication may promote a child’s behavior to be more predictable and may even appear able to cause a child to focus better on the task at hand. But, if the underlying problems these children are experiencing are not medical in nature, these children will begin a downward spiral lowering their self-confidence.

Now, because of the medication they are taking, the child doesn’t disrupt the class, yet they continue to know, within themselves, something still isn’t right.

Visual Disorders
With the knowledge that upwards of 80% of information processing comes from vision, a solution for your child’s learning difficulty can come to light. Behavioral vision disorders commonly affect a child’s ability to process visual information. Difficulty converging their eyes inward, focusing in order to identify along with tracking inefficiency, can cause children to see double, have blurry vision or lose their place and skip lines. Neglecting possible visual causes of difficulty can lower self-esteem and lead children to develop the “Failure Syndrome”. Children, not knowing what’s wrong, can believe that not being able to perform a particular task results from them being a failure.

These children may consider lowered professional expectations, achieving a vocation or profession lower than their actual potential. Early and appropriate intervention can change a child’s course of development from a lack of ability and frustration to an encouraged belief in themself.

Parents may feel a false sense of security by taking their child to the conventional eye doctor who says that the child’s eyes are fine, they see 20/20. Although seeing clearly is important, your child’s vision concerns may have nothing to do with eyesight and everything to do with inefficient and ineffective eye coordination, focusing and tracking ability.

Giving Kids Every Chance
Parents, teachers and school administrators have the power to advocate for our children. If we know that symptoms of these “impossible children” mimic behavioral vision dysfunction, we can give children the opportunity to explore appropriate treatment and a future that creates opportunity and success in their self-discovery.

If you do, you might be a parent that says “guess what, my child just picked up a book to read all by himself”!

---A Behavioral and Developmental Optometrist, Dr Joel Warshowsky is an Associate Clinical Professor at SUNY College of Optometry where he has been on faculty since 1976. He has previously served at SUNY as Assistant Chief of Vision Training Services, Acting Chief of Children Services, and the founding Chief of Pediatrics. He has served as Optometric Consultant to numerous schools for child development in the New York metropolitan area. Dr. Warshowsky has lectured nationally and internationally, appeared on television and radio interviews, and is widely published in the field. He is a Fellow in the American Academy of Optometry and College of Optometrists in Vision Development and is an active member of the American Optometric Association, New Jersey Society of Optometrist Physicians, the New York State Optometric Association, and the Optometric Extension Program.
Dr. Joel H. Warshowsky
  • Replied by Easyread Davidon Monday, June 10 2013, 02:18 AM·Hide·#1
    Hi Dr Joel,
    Thanks for your article! As a parent it would be handy to be able to explore it a bit first, rather than booking an appointment just in a state of hope.
    Could you give me a few key indicators that would suggest vision issues might be at the root of a child's other difficulties?
    Are there some simple home assessment techniques you can suggest, to help confirm it?
    And finally, what does one need to look for in vision specialists to know that they have the right skills to deal with these issues? Clearly an ordinary high street optometrist does not have the necessary training or equipment.
    Best wishes David
  • Replied by drjoelon Monday, June 10 2013, 01:52 PM·Hide·#2
    Hi David,

    In answering the first part of your question, I think it is prudent for a parent to initially explore any new treatment program before initiating it. Some good ways of doing that is to speak with a number of Doctors who offer the service you are considering, review their websites and you may even ask to meet them before bringing your child for an exam.

    The type of difficulties children present that would likely have a visual component include, reading, writing, spelling and learning difficulties, especially children who tend to act out behaviorally. There are two main types of indicators that can suggest that vision issues might be at the root of your child’s difficulties. Motivated and unmotivated children will react very differently to visual dysfunction. A motivated child will present as stressed, often complaining of headaches, eye strain, blurred vision, fatigued and labored, especially during visually demanding activities. The unmotivated child presents as uncoordinated and inaccurate, often complaining of loss of place and skipping lines while reading, omissions and substitutions, the need to reread in order to comprehend, as well as a lack of focus and attention during visual tasks. They may even see double, but you need to ask that question. Recognize that motor in-coordination resulting in your child often falling and bumping into objects can also be indicative of visual dysfunction.

    A penlight can be use as a simple technique that could further assist in identifying vision as a root cause of your child’s difficulties. Hold a simple penlight, NOT a laser light; pointed at your child, between their eyes and about 13inches away. Have the child look directly at the penlight the entire length of the technique. Then slowly move the light in a pattern that looks like you’re tracing the letter H (about the size your open hand). Make sure that the reflection of the light stays centered in both pupils equally as you move the light. Your child, age 7 and above, should be able to follow the light with both eyes without moving his head. Further indication that vision is playing a role would be if the light is not centered on your child’s pupil, or if he moves his head and/or has trouble following the light.

    There are considerations that can confirm whether or not a vision specialist has the appropriate skills to treat your child’s visual difficulties. Initially, question whether they have appropriate certification, i.e. fellowship in the College of Optometry in Vision Development and the American Academy of Optometry. Additionally, question whether they treat oculomotor, perceptual motor and developmental delay. Lastly, ask whether they use therapeutic lenses, prisms and vision therapy to remediate visual dysfunction. If they say yes to all of these questions, you are likely to be in good hands.
    • Babs- more than a month ago
      You use interesting definitions: motivated/unmotivate. Certainly a motivated child could be uncoordinated, right? Wondering if you could elaborate on your definitions. Thank you.
    • drjoel- more than a month ago
      Hi Babs,
      Yes, you are correct. A motivated child can be uncoordinated. I use these terms in reference to the extent with which a child believes in himself to take action for himself.
      In other words, how much effort will this child put into activities that are important to him.
    Dr. Joel H. Warshowsky
  • Replied by Mom2Boyson Monday, June 10 2013, 07:02 PM·Hide·#3
    Hi Dr. Joel,
    Thank you for taking the time to answer our questions!

    I have a son who was diagnosed 4 years ago with auditory processing disorder (APD). Even with accommodations in class he was still having major attention issues and of course everybody kept saying it was ADD. We assessed him for that and found in a quiet environment the attention issues were significantly improved, so we felt that was the wrong direction.

    At the suggestion of another parent I took him to a behavioral optometrist who diagnosed him with ocular motor dysfunction. They did an infrared eye-tracking assessment and found his eyes moved twice as much as necessary, with significant repetitive back-tracking movements.

    The behavioral optometrist told me that in his experience, it is rare for a child with APD to NOT have some visual motor dysfunction. He said the disruption in the vestibular system upsets the development of the vision system which is why these two issues are co-morbid. Do you find this to be true as well? And if so, would you suggest that any child diagnosed with APD have an assessment by a behavioral optometrist?

    Also, what are the chances of full vision function when a child has significant issues with tracking and sustaining focus? Can it really be fixed with vision therapy, or is this something he will have to do exercises his whole life in order to maintain the change?

    Thanks for your input!
    1 vote by drjoel
  • Replied by drjoelon Monday, June 10 2013, 09:10 PM·Hide·#4
    An Occupational Therapist once taught me that we are the same from the top of our head to the tip of our toes, we process the same message through auditory, motor and visual systems. It's the same message from our brains to our eyes to our ears and to our muscles. So yes, if a child has an APD, the likelihood that other processing issues exist is high. To be more specific, there is a direct connection between the vestibular system and vision. It's called the vestibular ocular reflex. There is a nerve that directly connects the vestibular (balance/orientation) system with the visual system. Car sickness, sea sickness etc result from it's imbalance.

    Yes, I think it would be prudent to have a routine behavioral optometric assessment for any child diagnosed with APD.

    I believe, and certainly have seen it in my experience that vision therapy, with a therapeutic lens to support it, can remediate tracking and focus issues. Once remediated, it will remain unless factors occur which may normally reinitiate the anomaly, i.e. head trauma, high fevers or any other traumatic event.
    Dr. Joel H. Warshowsky
  • Replied by bluesongson Tuesday, June 11 2013, 08:38 AM·Hide·#5
    Should prisms always be used in conjunction with vision therapy exercises, or can they be used separately? Thanks, Dr Joel!
    1 vote by drjoel
    • drjoel- more than a month ago
      I use prisms with almost every child I treat. They, as well as lenses, are an Optometrist most powerful tool. There are two distinct modes of doing vision therapy, passive and active. Passive therapy consists of activities that are done to a child without the child having to do much of anything, for example watching a video through red and green plastic sheets. Active therapy necessitates a child to have the ability to have intention to make change within themselves. An example might actively crossing my eyes inward while looking at a bead on a string coming closer to me. I would use prism glasses with all my therapy patients and I would typically want to do therapy with any patient that I prescribe prism.
  • Replied by TheCrewcrewon Tuesday, June 11 2013, 08:42 AM·Hide·#6
    Hi Joel,

    Thanks for all that great information.

    My question relates to the cost of vision therapy, since I am looking into it for my 9 year old son. So far I have had 4 very different quotes from various specialists. Should I assume that the more I pay the better the assessment is? Or are there specific questions I can ask about the ins and outs of the test that would allow me to decide how much it is value for money?

    Thanks in advance,

    2 votes by drjoel, bluesongs
    • drjoel- more than a month ago
      Hi Jules,
      In my answer to David, on June 10th, I presented some insight as to how one can choose their appropriate Doctor. With that said, paying more money doesn't necessarily provide better care. That's not to say that appropriate care can be costly. What you are looking for is a match for your child and the issues he presents. The question you need to answer is whether or not this doctor understands my child, the difficulties my child is undergoing and does this clinician have an answer to your concerns. If you've found such a person, money becomes less of an issue. Note, in my office there is always consideration for reduced payment. Speak to the provider that you feel can solve your child's problem about what ever financial concerns you have. I think you should be able to work out the finances with the right provider.
  • Replied by Mom2Boyson Tuesday, June 11 2013, 12:05 PM·Hide·#7
    Thank you, Dr. Joel! You have solved a great mystery for us parents in the APD community. I really appreciate the input.

    And so glad the vision therapy can have a permanent effect. I have 2 boys in vision therapy right now, and it is definitely an investment, but worth it if it's a long-term solution.

    Thank you for taking the time to answer questions!
    1 vote by drjoel
    • drjoel- more than a month ago
      You are quite welcome. Vision therapy and therapeutics lenses are powerful tools. I hope you can benefit from them.
  • Replied by llewon Wednesday, June 12 2013, 05:20 AM·Hide·#8
    Hi Joel,
    I have been recommended to try behavioral optometry for my 7 year old who is having some difficulty learning to read. At the moment we don't have the money for an assessment. Can you recommend any exercises or tests we can do at home? He doesn't have behavioural issues other than being very active - He loses concentration easily, forgets and muddles up letters, finds reading stressful and tiring and is much more comfortable with physical activity than academic work but he loves books, drawing, listening to stories - I feel sure that he will enjoy reading if he can get the hang of it. Also if we have him assessed what would treatment involve and are there likely to be ongoing costs?

    1 vote by drjoel
    • llew- more than a month ago
      actually I have just seen that you have a book out that contains all this information so I think I will get me a copy!
    • drjoel- more than a month ago
      Hi Claire,
      In my response to Jules on June 11th, I touched upon financial considerations. With that said, I don't believe that simply following an exercise will do much to resolve visual dysfunction. A child needs to understand what the activity is affording them for it to be of any benefit. Use some of the criteria that I've previously presented in finding the appropriate clinician to work with your child and if that person is the right clinician, they should be able to work through the financial concerns.
  • Replied by Butleron Wednesday, June 12 2013, 06:30 AM·Hide·#9
    Hi I have as 7 yr old and most of the systoms you have talked about is him,he has recently just finished the Easy read system and has improved very much but he still has problems with learning and u dear standing of lessons at the time it's given his finding really difficult. As this is something totally new that I have come across I am not very clued up about this programme. Can you advise if you know of any reputable doctors in the uk that could assist with this, any information will be appreciated .thank you R Butler
    1 vote by drjoel
    • bluesongs- more than a month ago
      Hi R -
      I'm sure Dr Joel will answer your question more fully, but you can see a list of qualified behavioural optometrists in the UK here: http://www.babo.co.uk/ - Sarah
    • drjoel- more than a month ago
      There is an organization called the College of Optometrist in Vision Development, COVD. This is an organization that offers fellowship for Optometrists who wish to excel in the treatment of visual dysfunction. My recommendation to you would be to look up doctors in the UK who are affiliated with COVD.
  • Replied by jackon Thursday, June 13 2013, 04:56 AM·Hide·#10
    Dear Dr Joel,
    my 7 year old daughter has eye tracking issues that impact on her reading but was only prescribed glasses by a behavioural optometrist. As her issues are persisting, I would like to find someone to do actual vision therapy with her, especially as you say it can potentially resolve the issue. How long does treatment normally last and is it something that is better done intensively?

    many thanks
    2 votes by drjoel, le
    • drjoel- more than a month ago
      I've found that 64 +/-8 session is my average program. Typically, my patients do 2 sessions at a time once or twice weekly. Home therapy reinforces the skills developed in the office on days that office therapy is not being done. Doing therapy less frequent will typically not produce remediation.
  • Replied by lisaon Thursday, June 13 2013, 06:15 AM·Hide·#11
    Hi Dr. Joel,
    My 10 year old daughter has been doing VT with a wonderful Behavioural Optometrist for about 6 weeks. He recommended weekly sessions for the next 9-12 months in addition to exercises repeated at home 5 days a week. Is there a typical time frame where one might start to see improvements? The sessions are quite taxing and I am wanting to give her some encouragement in light of realistic expectations. Also, are some of these issues related to full development of the mid-brain? We are also in a program called "Brainhighways" in which we learned that eye tracking issues could be present when the mid-brain is not fully developed. We are doing physical exercises (crawling) to facilitate development. I am curious of your opinion.
    1 vote by le
    • drjoel- more than a month ago
      With not knowing what your daughter's issues are, I will answer your questions in a general way. I've found that after 8 sessions of therapy you will begin to see improvement, sometimes beginning as subtle changes. I'm not aware of a visual relationship that's specific to functioning in the mid-brain region alone. Certainly, occipital, parietal, temporal and frontal lobes are involved. Physical/occupational therapy are wonderful treatment options for children with sensory and motor delay. I highly recommend co-joined treatment with these professionals when visual dysfunction is interrelated with developmental delay.
  • Replied by Magdaon Thursday, June 13 2013, 06:50 AM·Hide·#12
    Dear Dr Joel,

    my 7 year old son has very poor pursuits and saccades eye tracking ability. We have been attending visual therapy sessions with optometrist in UK. So far, we had 3 sessions (3-4 weeks apart). The therapist shows us different exercises such as looking at a bead on a string; focussing to see "x" shape and one bead, tracking suspend ball and exercises improving his coordination. We repeat the exercises at home as much as we can on a daily bases and every visit we are introduces to new exercise routine. In your earlier post you are mentioning lenses and prism glasses. Could you explain how do you use them? I am interested why my son's therapist haven't use them yet in his sessions.

    Thank you
    1 vote by drjoel
    • drjoel- more than a month ago
      My approach to active vision therapy is to have therapy sessions no more than 1 week apart. It creates a consistency in the program, that is critical for remediation. Simply said, lenses and prisms substitute for a child's effort to focus and coordinate their eyes, while vision therapy retrains a child's brain to send the correct message to their eye muscles that serve their ability to focus and coordinate. I believe that remediation of visual dysfunction demands the combined use of lenses, prisms and therapy.
  • Replied by MyPreciousBabieson Thursday, June 13 2013, 07:38 AM·Hide·#13
    Hi Dr Joel

    My 7yr old daughter is having reading problems, we home school. Although on normal regular visits to the optician there are no problems. But she does have problems "seeing" certain letters i.e., she reads TIP then when you add the "R" to make TRIP she will still say TIP, but this isn't every time. We have been doing the easyread system which is fantastic but she gets mixed up on her letter sounds and then after 10-15mins she is fidgeting and yawning etc. We have a similar problems with the math she will say its One Five not fifteen, she will tell me that she can see it in her head just not say it, I hope that i have explained this effectively. Would you have any suggestions for us.

    Many thanks
    1 vote by drjoel
    • drjoel- more than a month ago
      Hi Kym,
      It sounds like your daughter is not visually organizing her thoughts in a way that she can retrieve them in an orderly way. If her visual function is inaccurate, she will pick up visual information in a disorganized way leading her to express what she has seen disorganized. She should have a behavioral optometric evaluation.
    • MyPreciousBabies- more than a month ago
      Thank you very much, Do you have any rough ideas on the costing for this.
      Many Thanks for all your help
    • drjoel- more than a month ago
      The range is very broad, dependent on the practitioners background , experience and efforts to remediate. In the US it could be as high as $10,000 for the entire case soup to nuts. Recognize, that many practitioners are willing to reduce fees for those not able to afford the services. Behavioral optometrists are a unique profession very willing to make available their services. It never hurts to ask.
    • MyPreciousBabies- more than a month ago
      I will ask, thank you.
      Its such a shame that our governments don't make treatments like this more accessible and affordable, in an age where many parents are facing difficulties just holding the basic financial commitments together.

      Dr Joel, Thank you so much for your time in helping us all here.

      Kind Regards
  • Replied by Sjkelly19on Thursday, June 13 2013, 12:04 PM·Hide·#14
    Hi Dr Joel, I don't know if you can help me, this discussion was shared in a CAPD support group. I was diagnosed when I was 17 with CAPD back in 2004 and was told back then there was nothing I could do because I had already adapted to coping with it. Which is not at all true I still struggle every day. So I was wondering if you know of any programs/treatment designed for Adults with CAPD. It's so frustrating suffering from something no one knows about or has even heard of. I've asked my primary doctor for information and she herself didn't know what it was. I have heard of things for children but nothing really designed or adults with CAPD. I don't know how to look for help when I the only people I know to ask dot know anything about CAPD. Thank you for your time. Sarah
    1 vote by drjoel
    • drjoel- more than a month ago
      Hi Sarah,
      There are two suggestions that I have for you. First, I would consider sensory auditory programs that are available for children, through a speech pathologist. Don't let anyone tell you that it's too late. It's just not true. Second, schedule an appointment with a behavioral optometrist who will consider associated visual issues that may be contributing to the auditory processing issue.
  • Replied by Babson Friday, June 14 2013, 08:34 AM·Hide·#15
    Dr Joel,

    I thought I had posted this question a couple of days ago, but can't find it. I am trying again so if this is a duplicate, please forgive me.
    Are you familiar with and can you speak to the effectiveness of [b]sensorylearning? (www.sensorylearning.com). If you are familiar, do you believe it to be a worthwhile "investment". This therapy combines stimulating the visual, audtiory and vestibular at one time. A total of 30 treaments, consecutive. I have another professional tell me that this is not near enough stimulation to make a lasting impact. But because we have attacking the auditory component with a listening program, we may see good gains.
    I've been told that "sensorylearning" program sort of "prepares the brain to better ready it for VT"
    Also, are you familiar with neurofeedback? Could you also comment on this therapy as well.
    My 13-yr old needs to thru VT. She has APD, dyspraxia, low-muscle tone.

    Thanks so much for taking the time to help each of us!

    1 vote by drjoel
    • drjoel- more than a month ago
      Hi Babs,
      Multimodal treatment strategies are effective. Combining visual, auditory and vestibular came be powerful, especially when co-joined with therapeutic lenses, prism and vision therapy. An integrative program, such as sensorylearning.com or neurofeedback design, I also believe, generalizes the brains preparedness. Just as the listening program attacks the auditory component, vision therapy attacks the visual. Addressing the sensory component is considered top down processing while working through vestibular is considered bottom up. I also agree that programs like sensorylearning will not remediate, but I do believe it can set the stage for auditory and vision therapy to treat more effectively.

      often translate into a low tone visual system.
    • drjoel- more than a month ago
      Hi Babs,
      I was considering going into another thought, but I felt it might confuse the answer I was presenting. However, since it's out let me explain. A low tone child, (hypotonic) will commonly develop into a low tone visual system. The difference is this, a low tone child is low tone physiologically (muscle strength). Their muscle strength is below expected levels. Low tone within the visual system is based on the consistency of the brains message to the eye muscles that control coordination and focus. Think of a radio that's off the station. The static message needs to be send over and over and over again in order to get the real message being sent. Treatment for the visual component is top down and treatment for the motor component is bottom up. I hope this adds to your understand, allowing you to go forward with greater assuredly.
  • Replied by Babson Saturday, June 15 2013, 06:12 PM·Hide·#16
    Well, thanks so much!

    Now to tell my husband! Look, honey, more therapy!!! :p

    Blessings to you!

    PS Did you notice your reply was missing a chunk of info? I certainly don't want to miss anything you might have to say... especially when it's FREE advice!!! :D
    1 vote by drjoel
    • Babs- more than a month ago
      I'm not sure where to write these replies - here or on the box below - but here I go with what I'm NOT sure will be my last question? :) AM I SPLITTING HAIRS WITH THE TERMINOLOGY? You use the terms muscle strength when defining low tone phyisology. Our BO stated that "strength wasn't the issue. And I would agree as far as her large muscle groups go - she is plenty strong (it sometimes hurts to get a hug from her!) But there is definitely a coordination issue there (not knowing how hard to hug for example). Opening up a bag of chips or a granola bar is painful to watch as is other small motor functions - coloring, cutting, pouring salt on her popcorn! I mention this because although it may not take "strength" to sprinkle salt on food - it does take a lot of coordination integrating the eyes AND hand, am I right? So, when it gets down to brass tacks, a person's tone does effect their muscle strength, from a smooth, controlled, integrated standpoint. So in your radio station analogy - practice, practice, practice? And that's where the VT comes in? Fascinating. Expensive, but fascinating! Blessings again! And thank you for your input here. I almost feel obligated to buy your book!! :)
  • Replied by drjoelon Wednesday, June 19 2013, 06:16 PM·Hide·#17
    Hi Babs,

    You can ask as many questions as you like. It's my pleasure to give whatever advice I can.
    Yes, you are correct, a person's tone does affect their muscle strength. Your BO is also correct that visually, strength is not a consideration with eye muscle systems that are intact. Eye muscles are typically, much stronger than what would be needed for a visual task. However, when you speak about your child's motor coordination affecting their body, you are concerned with both strength and coordination. Typically, physical therapists (PT) work with strength while occupational therapists (OT) work with coordination, certainly integrating eyes and hand. This is one of the reasons I feel that co-joined therapy involving PT and OT with vision therapy is so powerful. And yes, repetition of an activity will increase the succinctness of the brains response.

    As far as the book goes, once you start reading it, you will not put it done. It will answer questions you didn't even realize you had.
    • Babs- more than a month ago
      Thanks once again. Curious where you stand on nutrition and these "integration" issues. Do you think allergies or basically anything that causes inflammation in the body/brain can cause these issues? Or, do you think these kiddos are just more susceptible to allergies or leaky gut syndrome which can lead to allergy-like symptoms. Do you feel dextoxing of candida and heavy metals makes a hill of beans of difference from a VT standpoint? We hear time and again that children on the autism spectrum do much better when dairy and gluten are taken out of their diet. I'm guessing SI/SPD kiddos fall somewhere in there. Also, are you seeing a rise in VD? As though, perhaps, there is a connection with our diets and environments? Just wondering how my kid who really eats well and has limited access to sugar... has to struggle when other children I see/hear live on fast food/processed junk daily. Our doctor and others have said it plays a big part in her vision issues. Thanks in advance.
    Dr. Joel H. Warshowsky
    Replied by drjoelon Tuesday, July 02 2013, 10:37 PM·Hide·#18
    Anything that disturbs blood/brain barriers potentially disturbs sensory motor function in all areas of concern, inclusive of: auditory, motor and visual function. Allergies, as an allergen, can additionally remove a child from participating in visually demanding activities and Leaky Gut can further exacerbate a child's ability to respond.

    In general, detoxing can only further a universal response of one's body to deter the adverse affects of one's ability to detoxify.

    I too, hear that reducing gluten and dairy free products improves behavior of a child on the spectrum. I believe that sensory motor and perceptually affected children are within that spectrum.

    Although i do believe that there is a connection between our diets and our environment, i haven't seen it reflected in VD, not withstanding the possibility .

    As far as your own kid goes, every child is different, each with strengths and weakness, tolerance and resistance. Each child in their own way will make their stand and determine their fate based on their ability to withstand the obstacles of life that are being presented.

    Hope this helps in your search!
    Dr. Joel H. Warshowsky
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